COSTS OF AUTOMOBILE DEPENDENCE: GLOBAL SURVEY OF CITIES
planning - surveys, planning - environmental impact, land use - impacts, policy - environment, place - europe, place - asia
United States, Toronto (Canada), Surveys, Europe, Environmental impacts, Environmental effects, Economic impacts, Costs, Cities, Automobile use, Automobile usage, Automobile travel, Australia, Asia
Automobile dependence is assessed in terms of its direct and indirect costs for 37 global cities. The data show that cities with the most car use, road provision, and urban sprawl have the highest road expenditure, the least transit cost recovery, the most spent on commuting, the highest external costs from road deaths and emissions, and the largest proportion of city wealth going into transportation. As well, the newly developing Asian cities are showing that their automobile-oriented planning is proving to be costly in economic and environmental terms. The costs of automobile dependence in a globally competitive urban environment cannot be simply rationalized away due to apparent or perceived benefits of automobile-based lifestyles.
NEWMAN, P, Kenworthy, J. (1999). COSTS OF AUTOMOBILE DEPENDENCE: GLOBAL SURVEY OF CITIES. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1670, p. 17-26.