SELF-REINFORCING MOTORIZATION: CAN TRAVEL DEMAND MANAGEMENT TAKE US OUT OF THE SOCIAL TRAP?
planning - travel demand management, planning - travel demand management, ridership - mode choice, ridership - demand, organisation - management, mode - mass transit
Trip reduction, Travel demand management, Transportation demand management, Transit, TDM measures, Social factors, Public transit, Mode choice, Modal choice, Mass transit, Local transit, Choice of transportation, Bi-modal transportation, Automobile use, Automobile usage, Automobile travel
Self-motorization is a reinforcing process involving positive feedback. It can be shown that a transportation system, using a model of bi-modal transportation system, may eventually be dominated by the automobile or may equilibrate at a grossly inefficient point due to social dilemmas associated with the automobile's use. Travel demand management (TDM) measures are conceived in this study as mechanisms to prevent the divergence of the motorization process away from a social optimum due to its positive feedback and social dilemmas. In order to see how TDM measures that rely on individuals' voluntary cooperation may be effective, a simple model of bi-modal transportation system and a cellular automata model of individuals' TDM compliance behavior are combined. In this paper, results of the simulation analysis based on the model are presented.
Kitamura, R, Nakayama, T, Yamamoto, T. (1999). SELF-REINFORCING MOTORIZATION: CAN TRAVEL DEMAND MANAGEMENT TAKE US OUT OF THE SOCIAL TRAP? Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3, p. 135-145.