D Hsu

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - route design, land use - planning, place - urban, place - low density, mode - bus, mode - mass transit, mode - subway/metro


Urban planning, Transportation industry, Transportation, Transport, Transit, Town planning, Suburbs, Shopping centres, Shopping centers, Routing, Routes, Route analysis, Road transportation, Regional planning, Public transit, Multiplicity of functions, Metropolitan area planning, Mass transit, Malls, Local transit, Level of service, Highway transportation, Functions (Mathematics), Focal points of communities, Employment, Economic development, Construction, Community planning, Communities, City planning, Bus routes


During the past 20 years, shopping centers have sprung up in American cities and suburbs in rapid succession. These shopping centers have literally changed a large part of the urban structure and social patterns of our society. It is also not uncommon to see certain shopping centers surrounded by newly developed high rise offices, apartments, condominiums, hotels, restaurants, and other consumer-oriented facilities. Together, they form a nucleus of urban activities which attract a significant number of trips from the community. Yet, studies have shown that these shopping centers are not generally well served by transit systems and that less than three percent of all shopping trips to regional malls use some type of public transportation.