Title

ENVIRONMENTAL RATING OF VEHICLES WITH DIFFERENT ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND DRIVE TRAINS: A COMPARISON OF TWO APPROACHES

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

2004

Subject Area

infrastructure - vehicle, planning - environmental impact, land use - planning, policy - environment, technology - alternative fuels, place - europe, mode - bike

Keywords

Technology assessment, Sensitivity analysis, Ratings, Powertrains, Power trains, Pollutants, Motor vehicles, Methodology, Methodologies, Life cycle planning, Life cycle analysis, Hybrid vehicles, Global warming, Fuel cells, Europe, Environmental impact analysis, Emissions, Electric vehicles, Ecosystems, Dual fuel vehicles, Drivetrains, Comparative analysis, Clean fuels, Bruxelles (Belgium), Brussels (Belgium), Battery powered vehicles, Automotive vehicles, Alternative fuels, Alternate fuels, Air pollution, Air pollutants

Abstract

In order to compare the environmental burden caused by various types of vehicles, comprehensive methodologies and rating systems are being developed. This paper compares two such rating systems, a Brussels one called ECOSCORE and a European one called CLEANER DRIVE, in order to highlight their differences and practical variations. Both vehicle rating systems were developed for the assessment of vehicles with alternative types of fuels as well as different types of drive train, such as hybrid, electric, and fuel cell vehicles. A simplified life cycle assessment following a well-to-wheel approach is used to compare the methodologies. Total emissions involve oil extraction, transport and refinery, fuel distribution and electricity generation and distribution as well as tailpipe emissions from the use phase. Different types of pollution such as acid rain, photochemical air pollution, noise pollution and global warming are examined and their impact on numerous receptors such as ecosystems, buildings and human beings are investigated. Examples illustrate both methodologies and sensitivity analysis is used to examine the robustness of the systems. Findings show that the ECOSCORE methodology allowed a clearer environmental rating of different individual vehicles that is useful when assessing various clean vehicle policy options. The CLEANER DRIVE model's results were dominated by global warming due to the selection of impact factors in the analysis. In general, however, the two methodologies have similar findings. The sensitivity analysis shows that both methodologies, especially the ECOSCORE system, are quite robust.

Comments

Transportation Research Part D Home Page: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13619209