Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - behaviour, ridership - commuting, ridership - demand, ridership - modelling, place - australasia, planning - surveys


Sydney, morning peak, surveys, willingness to change, flexibility, demand management


This paper reports an analysis of Sydney commuters‟ stated willingness to change their time of travel during the morning peak period in response to fare discounts and/or faster trip incentives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the peak spreading potential in an empirical case study of a Sydney urban rail corridor. Peak spreading is here understood to mean shifting the travel times of some passengers out of the most congested part of the peak. Survey results confirmed that differentiated service and fare policy measures offer peak spreading potential. In addition findings which are helpful in shaping peak spreading policies emerged, including the need for targeted measures, given that peak spreading potential sharply declines as displacement intervals increase. Work commitments emerged as a major barrier to peak spreading. Finally, it was found that a policy that would focus on morning peak demand management is also likely to address afternoon peak issues.