Updating Environmental Externalities Unit Values

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

place - australasia, place - urban, place - rural, economics - appraisal/evaluation, planning - environmental impact


road user effects, externalities, air pollution, greenhouse, noise pollution, water pollution, nature and landscape, urban separation and upstream and downstream costs


This report provides updated unit costs and price indices used to estimate environmental costs in the economic evaluation of Australian road infrastructure and transport projects. A series of calibrated environmental costs and user guidance is provided across a range of externality types such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, noise, soil and water pollution, biodiversity, nature and landscape, urban effects and upstream and downstream categories. These are further disaggregated according to passenger and freight transport (road and rail) in urban and rural locations. Maximum and minimum ranges are also calculated for these externalities. Detailed user information on the application of the externality values derived is also provided. The project used revised methodologies and data sources to derive the updated estimates. The research that informed the methodology is detailed in the report.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Austroads, copyright remains with them.