Title

JOB ACCESS AND REVERSE COMMUTING INITIATIVES IN CALIFORNIA: REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

2003

Subject Area

planning - route design, ridership - commuting, ridership - commuting, mode - bus

Keywords

Welfare-to-Work, Welfare recipients, User side subsidies, Shuttle service, Schedule extensions, Santa Cruz County (California), San Mateo County (California), San Bernardino County (California), Reverse commuting, New fixed bus routes, Mobility, Jobs, California, Automobile loan programs, Access

Abstract

A wide array of initiatives supporting job access and reverse commuting has been introduced in California over the past 5 years. Experiences were reviewed in five areas: schedule extensions, new fixed bus routes, shuttle services, user-side assistance, and automobile loan programs. Schedule extensions have provided much-valued mobility for the poor, but at high costs. New bus routes have been most productive when operating over long distances and delivering inner-city patrons to concentrated job hubs. Door-to-door shuttle services have mainly supplemented fixed bus routes and in some instances have been used to train former welfare recipients how to drive. Santa Cruz County has been a leader in crafting client-based programs that provide a menu of mobility options from which unique programs are custom designed to meet the job access needs of individuals. Automobile loan initiatives have been controversial; statistical evidence from San Bernardino County and case experiences from San Mateo County indicate that automobiles have aided Welfare-to-Work transitions.