INFLUENCE OF BUS-BASED PARK AND RIDE FACILITIES ON USERS' CAR TRAFFIC
operations - traffic, land use - planning, policy - congestion, policy - parking, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - mass transit, mode - park and ride, mode - car
Urban areas, United Kingdom, Travel behavior, Transportation policy, Transportation planning, Transit, Traffic relationships, Traffic mitigation, Traffic congestion, Public transit, Park and ride, Mitigation measures, Mass transit, Local transit, Gridlock (Traffic), Great Britain, Fringe parking
The rate of provision of bus-based park and ride (P&R) facilities on the fringes of urban areas in the U.K. has grown in recent years. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether these schemes reduce traffic. Research published in 1998 for the U.K. Government considered 8 case studies and was interpreted by some as providing reassurance that P&R can have traffic-reduction benefits. This paper offers a new approach to the appraisal of the same 8 P&R schemes, separating the analysis into urban and extra-urban components. The urban-area analysis considers the net result of intercepting cars on the edge of urban areas and running additional dedicated bus services from the car parks. Findings show that traffic was avoided in 7 of 8 cases. Analysis of the extra-urban effects of P&R considers 3 sources of traffic increase: motorists intercepted detouring to reach sites, users switching from public transport services, and motorists making additional trips. All are found to be important phenomena, with the total additional traffic generated outside the urban area being greater than that avoided within the urban area in every case study. It is concluded that the main effect of the schemes is traffic redistribution, and that their role within traffic restraint policies is unlikely to be one of traffic reduction.
Parkhurst, G. (2000). INFLUENCE OF BUS-BASED PARK AND RIDE FACILITIES ON USERS' CAR TRAFFIC. Transport Policy, Volume 7, Issue 2, p. 159-172.