ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSES OF LAND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS IN THE NETHERLANDS
planning - environmental impact, land use - planning, policy - environment, policy - sustainable, economics - appraisal/evaluation, mode - bike
Trip length, Travel time, Travel distance, Transportation modes, Sustainable development, Sustainability, Surface transportation, Netherlands, Multiple criteria decision making, Multicriteria evaluation, Modes, Life cycle planning, Life cycle analysis, Land transportation, Journey time, Ground transportation, Environmental impact analysis, Energy utilization, Energy consumption, Costs
Life-cycle analysis can be used to analyze environmental impacts of transportation systems. This paper compares various Dutch passenger transportation systems by studying their complete life-cycle energy uses, as well as their use of space, costs and travel time. Results in a multi-criteria analysis of these four aspects indicate that no one transportation system outperforms others in all characteristics. The train and the bicycle are shown to be superior options from both environmental and sustainable development perspectives, regardless of the travel distance considered.
Bouwman, M, Moll, H, (2002). ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSES OF LAND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS IN THE NETHERLANDS. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 7, Issue 5, p. 331-345.