SUBSTITUTION OF BUS FOR CAR TRAVEL IN URBAN BRITAIN: AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF BUS AND CAR EXHAUST EMISSION AND OTHER COSTS
infrastructure - vehicle, economics - appraisal/evaluation, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - rail, mode - car, mode - other
Volatile organic compounds, Vehicle exhaust, Urban travel, Sulfur dioxide, Health hazards, Freight car utilization, Exhaust gases, Exhaust emissions, England, Economic analysis, Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Car utilization (Railroads), Automobile exhaust, Air pollution, Air pollutants
Car exhaust emissions cause serious air pollution problems in many regions and, at a global level, contribute to climate change. Car use is also an important factor in other problems including traffic congestion, road accidents, noise pollution, community severance, and loss of countryside from road building. Forecasts of further increases in car ownership and use have prompted calls for policy-makers to encourage car users to switch to other forms of transport, particularly the bus. The effects of substituting bus for car travel in urban areas are simulated by specifying a spreadsheet model incorporating two types of car (petrol and diesel engine) and three types of bus (mini-, midi- and large bus). Six types of exhaust emission are considered for each vehicle type for the years 1992, 1995 and 1999: carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, (small) particulate matter and carbon dioxide. The paper provides a synthesis of monetary estimates of these exhaust emissions and other costs.
ROMILLY, P, (1999). SUBSTITUTION OF BUS FOR CAR TRAVEL IN URBAN BRITAIN: AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF BUS AND CAR EXHAUST EMISSION AND OTHER COSTS. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 4, Issue 2, p. 109-125.