User Satisfaction with Paratransit in Competition with Motorization in Indonesia: Anticipation of Future Implications

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - vehicle, planning - service quality, ridership - mode choice, economics - pricing, organisation - competition, mode - paratransit


Under developed countries, Third world, Service quality, Quality of service, Private passenger vehicles, Pricing, Perception, Passenger service quality, Paratransit services, Mode choice, Modal choice, Less developed countries, Future, Dial a ride, Developing countries, Customer service, Customer satisfaction, Competition, Choice of transportation, Case studies, Bandung (Indonesia)


The future existence of road-based urban public transportation such as paratransit services is challenged by the rapid pace of motorization in developing countries. This study investigates user satisfaction with paratransit service in order to anticipate implications for its future competition with motorization in Bandung, Indonesia. It establishes important factors and attributes to explain user perceptions and priorities regarding the service. The findings explain how users measure paratransit’s quality of service, inferring that they are likely to continue to use it. Even though users are dissatisfied with several aspects of paratransit, and the impact of competition has been strong, loyal users can still be found. By considering the findings, existing problems of inappropriate-quality service can be addressed to satisfy users’ expectations. Comfort, customer service, and safety and security are the most important factors of service quality to paratransit users, followed by provision of information. In order to compete successfully with private motorization, paratransit operators and the government should also carefully determine price in order to provide a level of service that users can afford and for which they are willing to pay.