Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany
operations - traffic, planning - safety/accidents, planning - education, land use - planning, place - urban, mode - bike
Urban transportation policy, Traffic safety education, Small cities, Netherlands, Large cities, Land use planning, Germany, Denmark, Cycling, Case studies, Bicycling, Bicycle usage, Bicycle travel, Bicycle facilities
This article shows how the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have made bicycling a safe, convenient and practical way to get around their cities. The analysis relies on national aggregate data as well as case studies of large and small cities in each country. The key to achieving high levels of cycling appears to be the provision of separate cycling facilities along heavily travelled roads and at intersections, combined with traffic calming of most residential neighbourhoods. Extensive cycling rights of way in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany are complemented by ample bike parking, full integration with public transport, comprehensive traffic education and training of both cyclists and motorists, and a wide range of promotional events intended to generate enthusiasm and wide public support for cycling. In addition to their many pro-bike policies and programmes, the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany make driving expensive as well as inconvenient in central cities through a host of taxes and restrictions on car ownership, use and parking. Moreover, strict land-use policies foster compact, mixed-use developments that generate shorter and thus more bikeable trips. It is the coordinated implementation of this multi-faceted, mutually reinforcing set of policies that best explains the success of these three countries in promoting cycling. For comparison, the article portrays the marginal status of cycling in the UK and the USA, where only about 1% of trips are by bike.
Pucher, John, Buehler, Ralph. (2008.) Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Transport Reviews, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 495-528.