Operational Experiences with Flexible Transit Services


D. Koffman

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - surveys, planning - signage/information, land use - planning, literature review - literature review


Flexible transit services, Interviewing, Literature reviews, Operations, Planning, Surveys, Transit operating agencies, Websites (Information retrieval)


This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency staff responsible for vehicle operations and planning and to those who work with them in this regard. Staff can use this report to learn from the experiences of other agencies and to compare their experiences with those of others. It documents and summarizes transit agency experiences with "flexible transit services," including all types of hybrid services that are not pure demand-responsive (including dial-a-ride and ADA paratransit) or fixed-route services, but that fall somewhere in between those traditional service models. The report documents six types of flexible transit service: request stops, flexible route segments, route deviation, point deviation, zone routes, and demand-responsive connector service. This report integrates information from several sources. It is based on data collected from a review of the relevant literature and survey of transit agencies. Twenty-four transit agencies provided information. Survey responses were supplemented by follow-up interviews with transit agency staff and reference to service descriptions available on transit agency websites.


Permission to link to report given by TRB