Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services


Richard Weiner

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - route design, planning - surveys, planning - integration, policy - fares, mode - paratransit, mode - community transport, literature review - literature review


Case studies, Circulator shuttle, Community transportation, Fares, Feeder services, Fixed routes, Integrated transit service, Interviewing, Literature reviews, Northwestern states, Oahu (Hawaii), Oregon, Paratransit services, Route deviation, Service integration, Site visits, Surveys, Transit operating agencies


This synthesis highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission. Details about Northwestern states' transit agencies that appear to have taken a more proactive approach are explored. Telephone interviews with key stakeholders to obtain in-depth case studies and a site visit to an area in Oregon, rich with examples of successfully operating integrated service, yielded helpful information. One chapter holds case studies of eight transit agencies with integrated services and an appendix offers 14 other agencies' survey responses. One additional appendix holds a case study for Oahu, Hawaii, where feeder service was explored but not implemented. This report was accomplished through a review of the relevant literature and surveys of transit agencies.


Permission to link to synthesis given by TRB