Using Public Transportation to Reduce the Economic, Social, and Human Costs of Personal Immobility

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - commuting, ridership - disadvantage


Aged, Children, Costs, Health care, Mobility, Public transit, Transportation disadvantaged persons, Welfare economics, Welfare to work


This report provides a method to define and measure the costs of personal immobility at a local level and contains a compendium of public transportation practices that address immobility, help reduce costs, and possibly provide economic benefits to both the riders and the larger community. The focus is on practices that assist people who need transportation to health care or who are transitioning from welfare to work. This report should be of interest to planners, decision makers, and social service and transportation providers. It should also serve as a resource to assist decision makers and transportation service providers in using their services more effectively to address the issue of personal immobility.


Permission to link to report given by TRB.