Process Model of Voluntary Travel Behavior Modification and Effects of Travel Feedback Programs

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - mass transit, mode - bike


Travel Feedback Program (Japan), Travel behavior, Transit, Theory of planned behavior, Public transit, Process modeling, Mass transit, Local transit, Integrated models, Habitual behavior, Bicycle usage, Bicycle travel, Behavior modification, Before and after studies, Automobile use, Automobile usage, Automobile travel


This study tested an integrated process model of travel behavior modification. The model combined a theory of planned behavior, a theory of norm activation, a theory of implementation intention, and theories of habit. To test the integrated model, panel data (n = 208) obtained before and after travel feedback programs (TFPs) were used (the TFP is a communication program aimed at voluntary modification of travel behavior, from automobile use to nonautomobile means of travel such as public transit and bicycle). A structural equations model using the collected data tested the integrated model. The results indicated that habit prevented people from forming behavioral intentions for behavior change; behavior change was induced by implementation intentions, which were influenced by behavior intentions; behavioral intentions were influenced by altruistic determinants.