Design, Operation, and Safety of At-Grade Crossings of Exclusive Busways

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, infrastructure - right of way, infrastructure - busway, planning - safety/accidents, mode - bus, mode - bike, literature review - literature review


Arterial highways, At grade intersections, Bicycle crossings, Bus transit operations, Busways, Design, Guidelines, Highway operations, Interviewing, Literature reviews, Midblock crossings, Right of way (Land), Right of way (Traffic), Site visits, Traffic engineering, Traffic safety


Exclusive busways in separate rights-of-way may have at-grade crossings with roadways or pedestrian and bicycle facilities. This report provides guidelines for the safe design and operation of at-grade crossings of exclusive busways. The guidelines are based on a detailed literature review, interviews with selected transit agencies, and site visits to Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, Orlando, and Richmond (British Columbia). The guidelines are intended to assist transit, traffic engineering, and highway design agencies in planning, designing, and operating various kinds of busways through roadway intersections. This report includes guidance for at-grade intersections along (1) busways within arterial street medians; (2) physically separated, side-aligned busways; (3) busways on separate rights-of-way; and (4) bus-only ramps. The intersections discussed include highway intersections, midblock pedestrian crossings, and bicycle crossings. The resulting guidance provides information that can be applied to enhance safety at busway crossings while maintaining efficient transit and highway operations, and minimizing pedestrian delay. This report will be of interest to transit agencies, roadway designers, city traffic engineers, and urban planners, as well as consultants for these groups and agencies. Appendixes A through I of the contractor's final report have been published as TCRP Web Document 36, available on the TRB website (


Permission to link to the report has been given by TRB.