The energy consumption implications of changing worktravel in London, Birmingham and Manchester: 1981 and 1991

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - commuting


The changing modal composition and volume of worktravel in London, Birmingham and Manchester and their resultant energy consumption implications are analysed in this research. The data are derived from the 1981 and 1991 Population Censuses special workplace statistics for small areas (wards). The results point to increases in total worktravel energy consumption due to both a rise in the volume of travel and the changing composition of travel in favour of less energy efficient car-based modes and away from more energy efficient public transport modes. Average energy intensities per person trip are generally shown to be increasing, and, from an energy conservation perspective, the trends are unhelpful. Policy measures designed to influence these trends are being devised and deployed but their effect remains to be seen.


Permission to publish abstract given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part A Home Page: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09658564