Impacts of express bus service on passenger demand

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - impacts, ridership - demand, mode - bus


The Region of Waterloo, Ontario, is a rapidly-growing metropolitan area approximately 100 km west of Toronto. In 2005, the Region’s transit operator, Grand River Transit, introduced an express bus service, known as iXpress, along the central north-south corridor of the Region. This paper explores the impact of the iXpress service on transit user costs and passenger attraction. We employ a methodology to quantify the generalized cost (including waiting time, in-vehicle and transfer times) of transit trips between key destinations in the Region before and after the implementation of iXpress. We also develop a methodology to identify those customers who benefit from the reduced cost of the iXpress. Finally, we present the change in ridership (boardings) in the corridor pre- and post-implementation. From these demand and cost data, we compute transit elasticity of demand with respect to generalized cost.


Permission to publish the abstract given by the Journal of Public Transportation.