Integrated transit services for minimum cost operation considering heterogeneous demand

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

economics - appraisal/evaluation, place - north america, ridership - commuting, operations - frequency, mode - rail, operations - capacity, economics - operating costs


public transportation, optimization, transit service


In large metropolitan areas, public transit is a major mode choice of commuters for their daily travel, which has an important role in relieving congestion on transportation corridors. The purpose of this study is to develop a model which optimizes service patterns (SPs) and frequencies that yield minimum cost transit operation. Considering a general transit route with given stops and origin-destination demand, the proposed model consists of an objective total cost function and a set of constraints to ensure frequency conservation and sufficient capacity subject to operable fleet size. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model, in which the demand and facility data of a rail transit route were given. Results show that the proposed model can be applied to optimize integrated SPs and headways that significantly reduce the total cost, while the resulting performance indicators are generated.