Policy frames of Park-and-Ride in Europe

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

policy - congestion, policy - environment, place - europe, policy - sustainable


Park-and-Ride, Parking, Policy framing, Sustainable mobility


Transport congestion and the quality of the air in city centres is a major concern for urban planners. In recent years Park and Ride (P + R) facilities have been increasingly introduced by local authorities as an alternative for or addition to parking supply in the city centre. In this paper we present results of a survey amongst 45 major cities in Europe. We study how deployment of P + R is framed by policy makers within their broader transport policy. This paper offers three things. First, we report on present adoption levels of P + R. The survey outcomes reveal that P + R is adopted fairly unevenly across Europe. We find that a quarter of the responding cities are extensively engaged on implementing P + R, whereas another quarter has little or no engagement. It raises the question, if congestion is a problem present in most major cities across Europe, why adoption is so uneven? Therefore, secondly, we map out diversity in framing of P + R throughout European cities, by revealing current beliefs about it. We show how diversified policy-makers’ interpretation of P + R is. Thirdly, we track the salient beliefs underlying the policy frames that determine P + R implementation. Linear regression analysis suggests that economic implications of P + R, perceived demand for P + R, and organisational learning capabilities are the most important drivers for city governments whether or not to engage in P + R development, explaining 40% of the variance in their actual engagement in P + R deployment.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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