Optimal All-Stop, Short-Turn, and Express Transit Services Under Heterogeneous Demand

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - rail, policy - congestion, economics - appraisal/evaluation, economics - operating costs, planning - service rationalisation, planning - travel demand management


commuters, public transit, total cost, integrated service patterns, associated service frequencies


As a major mode choice of commuters, public transit plays an important role in relieving congestion on urban transportation networks. A model is developed for cost-efficient operation that optimizes all-stop, short-turn, and express transit services and the associated frequencies by considering heterogeneous demand. For a transit line with given stations and origin-destination demand, the objective total cost function is optimized by considering a set of constraints that ensure frequency conservation and sufficient capacity subject to operable fleet size. A numerical example is designed that is based on a real-world rail transit line to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the developed model. Results show that optimized integrated service patterns and associated service frequencies significantly reduce total cost.


Permission to publish abstract has been given by Transportation Research Board, Washington, copyright remains with them.