Off-board fare payment using proof-of-payment verification

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mode - bus, mode - bus rapid transit, mode - tram/light rail, place - north america


proof-of-payment, transit systems, North America, evasion rates, enforcement techniques, penalties


The objective of this synthesis was to document the state of the practice in terms of experiences related to the application of proof-of-payment (PoP) on transit systems in North America and internationally, updating the information provided in the 2002 TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection. The subject is more complex than evasion rates. It involves related subjects such as inspection rates, enforcement techniques, duties of fare inspection personnel, adjudication processes, and the kinds of penalties involved for evasion. In addition, there is the need for acquiring capital equipment and, perhaps, handheld verification devices if smartcards are used. PoP fare collection has evolved to where it can be found on bus rapid transit, regular bus service, heavy rail transit, streetcars, passenger ferries, and commuter rail. A literature review, organized into five issue groupings related to PoP fare collection, is provided, as well as the results of a selected, on-line survey of transit agencies in the United States and Canada that yielded a 100% response rate (33 of 33 responses). Seven case studies offer detailed reviews of transit agency PoP fare collection experiences in Buffalo and New York City, New York; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles and San Francisco, California; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Phoenix, Arizona. Six areas deserving future study are identified as well.


Permission to link to the article has been given by Transportation Research Board, Washington, copyright remains with them.