Competition Between Egress Transport Modes: Stated Choice Model Incorporating Availability Effects

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - surveys, ridership - mode choice, organisation - competition, mode - mass transit, mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, mode - taxi


Walking, Travel surveys, Transit, Taxi services, Stated choice, Shared taxi, Public transit, Netherlands, Mode choice, Modal choice, Mass transit, Market share, Local transit, Egress, Competition, Choice of transportation, Choice models, Bicycles, Availability


This paper describes the results of a stated choice experiment that was conducted to understand better the substitution and synergy effects among various options for egress transport modes. The stated choice experiment that was designed varies the availability of alternative transport modes and makes it possible to identify which modes compete for the same market share. The survey consisted of 996 respondents in the Netherlands. The results show evidence of substitution effects of high-frequency public transport services on other transport modes, especially on train taxi and public transport bicycle, and evidence of synergy effects between low-frequency public transport services, especially taxi and walking. Taxi and train taxi show substitution effects on car-based transport modes and synergy effects on most other modes. The three bicycle alternatives do not exhibit any significant availability effects; this implies that they appear to have their own market.