Dynamic User Equilibrium in Public Transport Networks with Passenger Congestion and Hyperpaths

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, operations - capacity, operations - crowding


dynamic transit assignment, dynamic shortest hyperpaths, FIFO queues for attractive sets, Erlang pdf


This paper presents a Dynamic User Equilibrium for bus networks where recurrent overcrowding results in queues at stops. The route choice model embedded in the dynamic assignment explicitly considers common lines and strategies with alternative routes. As such, the shortest hyperpath problem is extended to a dynamic scenario with capacity constraints where the diversion probabilities depend on the time the stop is reached and on the expected congestion level at that time. In order to reproduce congestion for all the lines sharing a stop, the Bottleneck Queue model with time-varying exit capacity, introduced in Meschini et al. (2007), is extended. The above is applied to separate queues for each line in order to satisfy the First-In-First-Out principle within every attractive set, while allowing overtaking among passengers having different attractive sets but queuing single file.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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