Impacts of Transit in National Parks and Gateway Communities


Anne E. Dunning

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, land use - impacts, mode - mass transit


Transit, Traffic mitigation, Public transit, National parks, Mitigation measures, Mass transit, Local transit, Impact studies, Gateway cities, Economic impacts, Communities, Case studies


The U.S. National Park Service has worked to reduce traffic congestion in parks through a transit service. Consistently, communities around parks that are planning for transit want to know what effects they will experience from introductions or changes in service. This research developed a comprehensive understanding of the encountered effects. Seven case study investigations revealed no clear patterns in visitation changes at parks with recent transit initiatives. Circulation and economic impacts depended on local situations and followed from transit planning decisions. The case study findings provide models that can inform planning for continued expansion of transit on public lands.