Transit-Oriented Development and Household Transportation Costs. Household-level analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - mass transit, place - north america, land use - transit oriented development


transit-oriented development (TOD), household transportation costs, transportation


Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a comprehensive approach to sustainable community and regional planning that integrates critical environmental, economic, and social issues. This study focuses on a fundamental question for end users, that is, travelers: Can TOD, as a planning concept, serve people's needs and expectations as well as translate into tangible savings in expenditures on transportation? The role of TOD as a distinct planning strategy in affecting household transportation costs is specified within a sample selection regression model that controls for residential self-selection bias. With a sample of 6,526 households in the San Francisco, California, Bay Area in 2000, the regression results indicate that TOD has a dominant influence on household transportation costs. However, it makes only a moderately positive contribution to reductions in household expenditures on transportation. The regression results also indicate that the self-selection effect accounts for about 21% of the total influence of TOD.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Transportation Research Board, Washington, copyright remains with them.