Measuring transit oriented development: a spatial multi criteria assessment approach for the City Region Arnhem and Nijmegen

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - transit oriented development, place - europe, place - urban, planning - integration, infrastructure - interchange/transfer, land use - planning


TOD, TOD Index, SMCA, Hot-spot analysis, Arnhem Nijmegen City Region


Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a planning approach that can stimulate sustainable development by encouraging better land use and transport integration. Arnhem Nijmegen City Region, a regional planning body, in the Netherlands, aims to promote sustainable development in their region and control the current pattern of increased use of cars vis-à-vis transit for longer commutes. Planning for TOD can help achieve this aim. It is believed that measuring the existing levels of TOD is a prerequisite for TOD planning and that it can be done using a TOD Index proposed in this research. A TOD Index measures multiple spatial indicators and aggregates them under the SMCA framework to arrive at a comprehensive value depicting the existing levels of TOD at a location or an area. Using this TOD Index, TOD levels were measured over the entire City Region covering approx. 1000 km2. High levels of TOD imply that the urban development’s characteristics, at that location, are ripe for use of transit and these high levels, as expected, were found in the urban areas of Arnhem and Nijmegen. From the results of TOD Index measurement, using hot-spot analysis, those locations were identified that have high TOD levels but poor transit connectivity. These locations are accordingly recommended for better transit connectivity. As a part of our future work, it is intended to use the TOD Index to elevate TOD levels around existing transit nodes.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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