Using connectivity for measuring equity in transit provision

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - transit oriented development, mode - bus, mode - rail, mode - subway/metro, operations - frequency, operations - reliability, place - europe, planning - service level, policy - equity, technology - geographic information systems


Transit connectivity, Spatial equity, Vertical equity, Inter-generational equity, Geographical Information Systems


This study proposes the assessment of equity in transit provision by using transit connectivity as a comprehensive impedance measure. Transit connectivity considers in-vehicle time, access/egress times, waiting time, service reliability, frequency, and ‘seamless’ transfers along multi-modal paths. In addition, transit connectivity weighs the impedance components according to their relative importance to travelers. The assessment of equity was performed for the multi-modal transit system in the Greater Copenhagen Area, renowned for its transit-oriented finger-plan. The assessment method used a GIS representation of the network (i.e., service lines, timetables, metro stations, train stations, and bus stops), and transit assignment results (i.e., level-of-service times, passenger flows). The assessment method proved effective in calculating location-based and potential-accessibility measures and Gini coefficients of inequality in the Greater Copenhagen Area. Results show that the transit-oriented development contributes to spatial equity with high connectivity in densely populated zones, vertical equity with comparable connectivity in high income and low income zones, inter-generational equity with good connectivity provision for students to higher-education and job opportunities. Also, results show that the north-west ‘finger’ is less equitable with lower connectivity for low population density and lower connectivity to higher-education opportunities regardless of the high number of students.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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