Efficient frontier analysis of Dutch public transport tendering: A first analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, mode - bus, organisation - governance, organisation - contracting, economics - appraisal/evaluation


Governance, Public transport, Efficient frontier analysis, Netherlands, Competitive tendering, Evaluation


Dutch public transport provision has been competitively tendered out increasingly since 2001. Except for the Amsterdam city bus services, all bus transport in the country is carried out under a competitively tendered contact. Several evaluations have been carried out on the effects of competitive tendering in the Netherlands. Elsewhere we have seen stochastic frontier studies used to analyze the effects of governance changes. This paper carries out such a study for the Netherlands.

In addition, the study expands the dataset with regional data as well as customer satisfaction and patronage data.

This paper represents the first analysis of 10 percent of the concession years since 2001. It shows some unexpected outcomes, like tendering not bringing the higher efficiency expected. In addition, it also shows expected results, as the efficiency costs of quality incentives.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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