Park-and-Ride Access Station Choice Model for Cross-Regional Commuting: Case Study of Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, Canada

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, mode - subway/metro, mode - rail, mode - park and ride, planning - surveys, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice, ridership - modelling, infrastructure - station


park-and-ride, travel survey, choice models, Toronto Transit Commission (TTC), GO Train


The paper presents an investigation of park-and-ride access station choices of cross-regional commuters in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton area (GTHA). Data from a household travel survey conducted in 2006 in the GTHA were used for this empirical investigation. The household travel survey data were supplemented by data from transit service operators on park-and-ride station locations, parking lot capacities, parking costs, surrounding land use, and station amenities. Three groups of park-and-ride users were defined: (a) individuals for whom only local transit Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) subway stations were within reasonable reach, (b) individuals for whom only regional transit (GO Train) stations were within reach, and (c) individuals for whom both GO Train and TTC subway stations were within reach. Different model structures and specifications were tested, and three discrete choice models were estimated. Empirical models revealed that access distance and the relative station direction (toward the workplace) were the primary factors that affected transit station choice for park-and-ride options. However, for station distance and relative station direction, commuters were more sensitive to changes in station access distance than to changes in the relative station direction from their households. In addition, the empirical models revealed that local transit park-and-ride users were less sensitive to access distance than were regional transit park-and-ride users. The results of this investigation could be useful in future transit station design projects to attract more commuters to use park-and-ride facilities.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Transportation Research Board, Washington, copyright remains with them.