Jobs-Housing Balance of Bus Commuters in Beijing Exploration with Large-Scale Synthesized Smart Card Data

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - asia, land use - planning, technology - passenger information, ridership - commuting


smart card data, bus commuters, actual required commute (ARC), minimum required commute (MRC), jobs-housing balance


Jobs-housing studies have rarely used smart card data provided by public transportation agencies or focused on bus commuters. In this study, massive smart card data were used to estimate 216,844 bus commuters' workplace and residence locations in Beijing. These data enabled a jobs-housing study of bus commuters in the metropolis with a much larger sample size than in most other studies. The study found that Beijing's bus commuters had a shorter actual required commute (ARC) and a shorter minimum required commute (MRC) than commuters in four other auto-dependent Western cities with comparable population and land use size. The study also indicated that Beijing's bus commuters had a longer ARC and a longer MRC than commuters of all modes in Guangzhou, a metropolis in southern China half the size of Beijing. Consultations with local experts, field surveys, and information provided by online housing search engines were used to supplement the smart card data. The study established five land use prototypes of jobs-housing imbalance and proposed countermeasures to address the imbalance.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Transportation Research Board, Washington, copyright remains with them.