Benefits and delivery risks for bus infrastructure schemes

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

place - australasia, mode - bus, economics - appraisal/evaluation, economics - benefits, infrastructure - interchange/transfer, infrastructure - stop, infrastructure - bus/tram priority, planning - environmental impact


policy and planning practices, bus-based infrastructure, cost-benefit analysis, risk management


This research evaluates existing policy and planning practices, both in New Zealand and overseas, and identifies a framework for appraising and evaluating the benefits and costs of bus-based infrastructure (bus stops and shelters, bus interchanges and bus priority) and the risks to successful project delivery. It suggests a combination of multi-criteria analysis and cost-benefit analysis can provide local authorities with useful tools for assessing proposed projects. At the heart of this appraisal method is the appraisal summary table (AST), which gives a summarised overview of the expected benefits, costs and risks relating to a project. The AST provides procedures suitable for both ex-ante and ex-post evaluation, and integrates risk management considerations into project appraisal from the outset. The proposed framework would usefully inform future revisions of the Economic evaluation manual and Guidelines for public transport infrastructure and facilities. Sustained application and refinement of the framework should ensure more systematic recording of the quantitative and qualitative benefits and risks of public transport infrastructure projects.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by NZ Transport Agency, copyright remains with them.