Modeling and Performance Assessment of a Transit-Based Evacuation Plan Within a Contraflow Simulation Environment

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, operations - performance, land use - planning, policy - environment, organisation - performance, mode - mass transit


Transit, Traffic simulation, Traffic flow, Systems approach, Systems analysis, System planning, System analysis, Routing, Public transit, Mass transit, Local transit, Evacuation, Contraflow operations (Emergencies), Bottlenecks


A bilevel optimization model is used to determine the waiting locations and corresponding shelters—in the case study, a combinatorial problem between bus stops and Metro stations—of a transit-based emergency evacuation plan and dispatch rescue buses toward the combinatorial locations. In additional, a contraflow simulation is elaborated to disperse the inside and ambient traffic of the target area. Results from the simulation can be used for modifying routing plans to avoid potential traffic bottlenecks. Findings indicate that the transit-based evacuation plan with the contraflow operations outperforms the same base plan without the contraflow operations. If more people select to evacuate via transit systems, the difficulties of dispersing traffic would be reduced and system performance remarkably improved.