Understanding overall output efficiency in public transit systems: The roles of input regulations, perceived budget and input subsidies

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, organisation - regulation, economics - subsidy, operations - performance


Operating and capital subsidies, Transit regulations, Budget size, Overall productive efficiency, Efficiency decomposition


This paper examines the combined effects of subsidies, regulations and perceived budget on overall output and technical efficiency in a sample of single-mode bus transit systems using an indirect production function. The main findings are that the average transit system is 67.21% output efficient and systematic and stochastic technical inefficiencies decrease output. In addition subsidies increase output, regulations decrease output and the overall budget effect is an increase in output. Additionally, it identifies the characteristics of two groups of transit systems whose perceived costs after subsidies and regulations are either less or greater than actual total costs.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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