Modal Choice in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Statistical Area: An Exploratory Data Analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, place - urban, ridership - mode choice


exploratory data analysis, mode choice, social geography, transit, urban transportation


Journey-to-work mode choice is intertwined with ideological and pragmatic issues. This article reexamines such issues using socioeconomic data from the decennial census and American Community Survey (ACS). It investigates the structure of variables with exploratory data analysis (EDA) because this technique advises the formation of hypotheses and the specification of cause and effect. Traditional EDA reveals the nonnormal structure of raw data, mapping illustrates associations between transit and income, and both methods suggest the presence of a transit-by-choice population among affluent metropolitan residents. The results yield three hypotheses concerning propensity to use transit that have previously received little attention.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.