Agent-based simulation framework for mixed traffic of cars, pedestrians and trams

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - car, mode - pedestrian, mode - tram/light rail, land use - impacts, planning - integration


Multi-agent system, Mixed traffic, Public transportation, Pedestrian, Transportation policy assessment


In this paper, we report on the construction of a new framework for simulating mixed traffic consisting of cars, trams, and pedestrians that can be used to support discussions about road management, signal control, and public transit. Specifically, a layered road structure that was designed for car traffic simulations was extended to interact with an existing one-dimensional (1D) car-following model and a two-dimensional (2D) discrete choice model for pedestrians. The car model, pedestrian model, and interaction rules implemented in the proposed framework were verified through simulations involving simple road environments. The resulting simulated values were in near agreement with the empirical data. We then used the proposed framework to assess the impact of a tramway extension plan for a real city. The simulation results showed that the impact of the proposed tramway on existing car traffic would not be serious, and by extension, implied that the proposed framework could help stakeholders decide on expansion scenarios that are satisfactory to both tram users and private car owners.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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