A disaggregate study of urban rail transit feeder transfer penalties including weather effects

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - australasia, place - urban, mode - rail, mode - bus, mode - car, mode - tram/light rail, ridership - mode choice, ridership - commuting, ridership - perceptions


Urban rail transit, URT feeder transfer penalty, Mode choice model, Weather attributes, Socio-economic characteristics


Transfers between urban rail transit (URT) and its feeder modes represent a considerable barrier to its ridership and the network-wide usage of public transit. The aim of this research is to quantify the time-independent transfer penalty between URT system and feeder modes and to explore its variability by different factors. Based on Melbourne URT origin and destination survey data, this study focused on URT access and egress journeys and estimated URT feeder transfer penalties by formulating feeder mode choice models. With three-hourly weather data and demographical data introduced, this paper conducted disaggregate analyses to investigate the variability of URT feeder transfer penalty across weather conditions, trip types and individual characteristics. According to the model estimation results, the values of transfer penalty vary according to the direction of transfer and the preference ordering for different transfer combinations is URT-tram, URT-bus, tram-URT, bus-URT and auto-URT. It found that local weather elements in terms of air temperature and precipitation are significant factors resulting in the variability of the transfer perception by URT travellers. Transfer penalties for access journeys increase with the rise of air temperature. The non-linear effects of precipitation on URT feeder transfer penalties were observed. In addition, commuters perceive smaller transfer penalties than other travellers for all of the transfer combinations except for bus-URT transfers. Travelers from remote areas perceive smaller transfer penalties for access trips. Travellers’ loyalty to public transit restrains transfer penalties. The male travellers perceive higher transfer penalties than the female. The elderly travellers impose low transfer penalties to access journeys but high transfer penalties for egress journeys. Finally, the paper explored policy implications and details areas for future research.


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