DRT route design for the first/last mile problem: model and application to Athens, Greece

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, place - urban, mode - demand responsive transit, mode - bus, planning - route design, planning - network design, planning - travel demand management


Feeder bus, Transit network design, Demand-responsive transport, Genetic algorithms


The first/last mile problem in urban transportation services refers to limited connectivity and accessibility to high capacity commuter lines. This is often encountered in low-density residential areas, where low flexibility and resources of traditional public transportation systems lead to reduced service coverage. Demand-responsive transit (DRT) offers an alternative for providing first/last mile feeder services to low density areas, because of its flexibility in adjusting to different demand patterns. This paper presents a mathematical model and a genetic algorithm for efficiently designing DRT type first/last mile routes. The model is applied for the case of a residential area in Athens, Greece and results are discussed.


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