Evaluating passenger satisfaction index based on PLS-SEM model: Evidence from Chinese public transport service

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, ridership - perceptions, planning - service quality


Public transport, Passenger satisfaction index, American customer satisfaction index, Structural equation model, Partial least square


The evaluation method consisting of partial least square (PLS) and structural equation model (SEM) is proposed to measure public transport passenger satisfaction as it systematically analyzes public transport service satisfaction. Taking into account the characteristics of Chinese public transport services, we modify the American customer satisfaction theory and construct the conceptual model of passenger satisfaction index (PSI). The measurement model of PSI is established based on PLS-SEM. Based on the passenger satisfaction data covering 58 Chinese public transport operators of 13 cities, an empirical analysis was carried out. Conclusions are summarized as follows: ① The convenience, safety, reliability, comfort and operational service, which are belonged to passenger perceived quality, have a significant direct positive effect on the passenger satisfaction. ② The correlations between passenger expectations, passenger perceived value, passenger loyalty and passenger satisfaction are all significant direct positive. ③ The correlations between passenger satisfaction, passenger loyalty and passenger complaint are all direct negative. ④ Passenger satisfaction index score of 13 cities is as low as 68.88. According to the results, some feasible suggestions are proposed from perspectives of both the enterprise operation and industry regulation to improve the healthy and orderly development of public transport industries.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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