Commuting Efficiency Gains: Assessing Different Transport Policies with New Indicators

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - bus rapid transit, land use - impacts, ridership - commuting, planning - travel demand management, technology - passenger information


Smartcard data, gravity model, policy scenario, excess commuting, bus


This paper outlines new indicators for evaluating the probable impacts of introducing different land use/transport policies on the commuting efficiency of a city. It uses Beijing as a case study to describe how smartcard data can be used to derive a large number (n = 216,884, 9% of the population) of bus commuters’ workplace and residential locations. Using existing excess commuting indicators and new commuting efficiency gain indicators established to assess policy options, it exemplifies how to assess impacts of different policies on bus commuting efficiency gains. The case study indicates policies that directly target bus commuters (such as BRT) bring greater commuting efficiency gains when compared to other policies such as car usage restrictions and stringent travel demand management measures in the downtown area.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.