Mitigation of overcrowding in buses through bus planning

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus, operations - crowding, planning - methods, planning - travel demand management, ridership - demand


Incentivize bus transport, Delhi, Overcrowding, Mathematical modelling, Decision support


Mathematical models have been developed to address overcrowding in buses to incentivize their use. The models capture real-life requirements of bus planning, are computationally tractable, and easy to understand by decision makers. First, the current level of bus services on the given network is assessed. Then the models are developed to allocate the existing buses optimally and determine the minimum number of buses needed to satisfy the existing and future demand. Our results demonstrate that significant benefits can be obtained by the use of these models. The models also incorporate decision-making flexibility by allowing policy makers to adjust the policy parameters according to their requirements. As a result, they can be useful decision-making tools for city transport anywhere in the world, especially Delhi and other cities with similar problems.


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