Simulation-based robust optimization of limited-stop bus service with vehicle overtaking and dynamics: A response surface methodology

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, economics - operating costs, planning - methods, planning - travel demand management, operations - performance, operations - reliability


Public transport, Bus stop-skipping, Overtaking, Dynamics, Response surface methodology


We propose a robust optimization model for limited-stop bus service with vehicle overtaking and demand dynamics. Time-dependent stochastic travel time is also considered. The objective is to minimize the total cost (user cost and operation cost) at the planning phase given a target reliability imperative. We further propose a simulation-based optimization framework incorporating response surface methodology to solve the problem efficiently. A real-world application result shows that vehicle overtaking and demand dynamics have significant impacts on the performance of limited-stop service and that the stop patterns are quite distinct when overtaking and demand dynamics are considered.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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