Evaluating sustainability and land use integration of BRT stations via extended node place model, an application on BRT stations of Tehran

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus rapid transit, policy - sustainable, land use - planning, land use - transit oriented development, land use - urban design, infrastructure - station


BRT stations, Pedestrian accessibility, Extended node-place model, Space syntax model, Sustainable development, Transit-oriented development (TOD)


Modern transportation planners and urban designers are looking for a practical solution toward sustainable, accessible, and cost-effective development of public transportation. Achieving a well-balanced transit-oriented development (TOD) requires a clear illustration of the existing public transportation, land use, and correlations between them. Bus rapid transit (BRT) is a well-known strategy toward developing high-quality transit networks and would be a reasonable transportation choice if allied with a suitable walkable design in surrounding areas. In this paper, the node-place model is developed and applied on BRT stations in Tehran to be analyzed and clustered using three extended TOD indicators. The design index, representing the accessibility and walking potential, is further improved by measuring spatial specifications and walkway density parameters. Furthermore, the place index, representing demand and land use specifications of the area, is investigated through the calculation of possible destination points (PDPs) in the vicinity of stations. The model is reapplied after correlation analyses on input data to find stations' behavior by using more effective parameters. The results indicate that appropriate access to the stations requires a tight network of walkways that offers multiple routes to the stations. Meanwhile, a dense and sophisticated pedestrian area needs to offer short routes with minimum turns required to reach the station. Moreover, in each station, some factors are found to be more dominating. Changes in these factors have more profound effects than other factors. This paper aims to identify these factors and help planners develop TOD areas sustainably.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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