A typology of the built environment around rail stops in the global transit-oriented city of Seoul, Korea

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - rail, mode - subway/metro, infrastructure - station, ridership - demand, land use - impacts, land use - planning, land use - transit oriented development


Urban development around rail stops, Station area typology, Transit demand, Seoul


Compact, diverse, walkable, and well-integrated development around mass transit has been shown to increase transit ridership, balance passenger flows, promote economic development, and improve quality of life. Developing station area typologies constitutes an important step in the planning and implementation of land development oriented toward transit. These typologies should reflect local priorities and market conditions, avoid a one-size-fits-all approach to station area development, and stimulate conversations regarding the roles transit-focused development can play in regional development strategies. This study develops an empirically based station area typology based on four key domains—namely, place, location, integration, and value—comprising 19 variables. We use these domains to identify ten emerging station area types in Seoul, Korea, 2015. In doing so, we demonstrate that these four domains vary according to station area type and can thus be used to distinguish between stations. When compared with station ridership, results show that station area types with a high concentration of jobs (office and retail) and a central location are associated with significantly higher metro ridership. The variety of station area characteristics and types suggests that station areas play varied and changing roles, emphasizing the need to consider diversity in development policy design.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.