Intermodality in European metropolises: The current state of the art, and the results of an expert survey covering Berlin, Copenhagen, Hamburg and Paris

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, place - urban, planning - surveys, policy - sustainable, land use - planning, ridership - behaviour, ridership - demand


Urban mobility, Intermodality, Travel behaviour, Transport policies


Intermodality, defined as using more than one mode for a single trip, is frequently discussed as a measure to help achieve more sustainable mobility in Europe, especially in cities. However, intermodality presents challenges for transport providers, and has its drawbacks for users, who prefer connections that do not require changing between transport modes. As a basis for forming recommendations to facilitate intermodality, we first analysed the status quo of intermodal mobility in four European metropolises: Berlin, Copenhagen, Hamburg and Paris. Subsequently, we conducted an expert survey in which we asked experts in the four cities about the future share and development of intermodality, its future relevance and potential of intermodality in transport planning, and how various factors on both the demand and supply side influence the level of intermodal activity. According to our findings, most experts foresee an increase in the share of intermodal trips. They also believe the relevance of including intermodality considerations in transport planning to be increasing. The increase of intermodal mobility will be driven by factors such as reduced vehicle ownership, but also by new mobility patterns. The latter can be explained by social factors such as urbanisation or digitalisation that affect the lifestyle of cities’ inhabitants in future.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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