Considering context and dynamics: A classification of transit-orientated development for New York City

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, place - urban, land use - transit oriented development, land use - urban density, land use - urban design, land use - planning


Transit-oriented development, TOD typology, Self-organising map, Urban dynamics, Public transit


Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is a widely recognised planning strategy for encouraging the use of mass and active transport over other less sustainable modes. Typological approaches to TOD areas can be utilised to either retrospectively or prospectively assist urban planners with evidence-based information on the delivery or monitoring of TOD. However, existing studies aiming to create TOD typologies overwhelmingly concentrate input measures around three dimensions of: density, diversity and design; which might be argued as not effectively capturing a fuller picture of context. Moreover, such emphasis on static attributes overlooks the importance of human mobility patterns that are signatures of the dynamics of cities.

This study proposes a framework to address this research gap by enhancing a conventional TOD typology through the addition of measures detailing the spatiotemporal dynamics of activity at transit stations; implemented for the selected case study area, New York City.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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