Factors underlying the connections between active transportation and public transit at commuter rail in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, place - urban, mode - rail, mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, planning - integration, land use - impacts, land use - planning, land use - urban density


Station access, Active transportation, Commuter rail, Cycling, Walking, GO Transit


Encouraging the integration of active transportation with transit is increasingly being pursued as a strategy by transit agencies to boost alternative means to access transit services. Using the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Areas’ GO Transit as a case study, we conduct an investigation into the land-use and socioeconomic variables influencing the use of active transportation to access commuter rail stations. The percentage of transit users that arrive by active modes is explored using a binomial logit model. Population density, proportion of residential land, population age, low automobile ownership and median income are found to be positively associated with the integration of active transportation and transit. The proportion of commercial/institutional land, street density, and the amount of car parking at stations are negatively associated with access by active transport. The research helps to identify several policies that may increase the level of integration between active transport and public transit in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SpringerLink, copyright remains with them.