Examining the effect of land-use function complementarity on intra-urban spatial interactions using metro smart card records

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, mode - subway/metro, technology - passenger information, technology - ticketing systems, ridership - behaviour, land use - impacts, land use - planning


Spatial interaction, Land-use function complementarity, Gravity model, Smart card data


Spatial interaction is an important phenomenon that reflects the human–land relationship and has long been a core topic in multiple fields, such as urban planning, transportation planning, commodity trade, and epidemic prevention. However, as an underlying cause of spatial interaction, function complementarity has been ignored by existing research for a long time. At the same time, the increase in Big Data of travel behavior provides an opportunity to model spatial interactions in detail. In this paper, we proposed three types of land-use function complementarity indices according to the spatiotemporal characteristics of human mobility. These complementarity indices are introduced to spatial interaction to improve the gravity model. We also examined the effects of land function complementarity on intra-urban spatial interaction using smart card records of metro system for different time periods and directions. The results showed that all models could be improved by introducing the land-use function complementarity indices, but the models with a single travel pattern and clear direction were explained more by the complementary indices. The indices we propose in this paper could be used for predicting spatial flow and trip distribution, and also could be considered as factors in researches about transportation and land-use planning.


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