Competence distribution and policy implementation efficiency towards sustainable urban transport: A comparative study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, planning - methods, planning - integration, policy - sustainable, organisation - structures


Organization structure, Policy-making, Modal shift, Measure implementability, Sustainable transport


In this research, aiming at understanding relationships between competence distributions for public transport among various stakeholders such as public bodies and operators, and implementation efficiency of policy measures aiming at increasing modal shares of public transport, a comparative study is carried out. In the course of this exploratory research, a methodology combining analyses in three pillars is developed. The three pillars are manifestation of outcome goals in urban mobility plans, implementability analysis of measures, and trend in changes of modal share. The results from these three pillars are synthesized to draw a conclusion. Among the cities analyzed in this research, cities with more integrated competences for public transport at public bodies tend to make quantitative and time-bound policy goals towards modal shift to be successful in achieving desired modal share. In reverse, cities with more disperse competence distribution tend to show less clarity in its policy manifestation, and to be less successful in shifting the modal share towards optimal modal share in light of sustainable mobility. Among the successful cities, the cities internalizing the competence within the public body tend to attain desired modal share more successfully than cities controlling the service parameters through public ownership of operators.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Research in Transportation Economics Home Page: